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Golang Performance: Go Programming Language vs. Other Languages
Golang was first released by Google in 2009 and, and since then, has gained widespread acceptance among developers due to its simplicity, concurrency, and performance. However, many years later, Go was suddenly forgotten as many users chose other languages like Java or Python for their projects.
After a nearly six-year absence, Google’s Go language has re-entered the top 10 Tiobe index of programming language popularity. Despite its lightweight return, many still expect Golang performance’s continued relevance and value in modern software development.
In this article, we provide you with all the necessary information about Golang through exciting facts and a detailed comparison between Go and other popular programming languages to help you make the right choice for your future project.
Facts of Go Programming Language
Go language is one of the most popular programming languages today used by many developers in the software development process. However, for those who do not have technical expertise, this is a relatively new concept. So, instead of presenting the traditional definition of Go code, this article will introduce you to this language in terms of facts.
- Created by Google: Go was created in 2007 by Google and publicly released for the first time in 2009.
- Open-source: Up to now, this language is still maintained by Google developers and supported by contributors from the open-source Golang community.
- Operating Systems: Go programming language is a platform-independent language that enables developers to compile and run on multiple operating systems like MacOS, Linux, Windows, Solaris, FreeBSD, DragonFly BSD, etc.
- Standard Library: Go has a designed library that is comprehensive yet minimal. This allows developers to build applications without counting on external ones.
- Clients: Docker, Prometheus, and Kubernetes are popular projects using Golang performance.
- Inspirations: Go has simple syntax, even though inspired by C and C++.
- Usage: Google designs Go language to meet the needs of parallel computing environments, especially web applications, data science, cloud infrastructure, machine learning applications, etc., due to its innovative library, solid security, and steady performance.
Golang Performance: Why Golang?
The Go documentation describes Go itself as “an open-source programming language that makes it easy to build simple, reliable, and efficient software.” In fact, the Go language offers large development teams even more advantages.
Similar to other programming languages, speed is considered the most important factor for any software development solution. Golang speed depends on a lot of reasons.
First, Go is a compiled language, not interpreted language. Go speeds up the compilation process of Go code from the binary file directly to machine code without working through the virtual machine. Second, Go has built-in support for concurrency. Concurrency paradigms give developers complete freedom to choose how to approach things and solve problems appropriately for the software application. By deploying workloads across multiple CPU cores simultaneously, Go is particularly well suited for high loads applications or intensive I/O operations that require multitasking. Finally, compared Golang with other languages that use bytecode or interpreted code, Go with native compilation fasters code execution and take full benefits of modern CPU features.
If you are familiar with the C++ programming language, you probably don’t have to spend too much time mastering Golang because of the similarities between them. What about newbies who have no experience in writing code? It doesn’t matter that Golang provides users with a concise syntax that is extremely readable and understandable. Thanks to this simplicity, faster execution and reduction of the vast majority of work, such as programming and debugging time, is possible.
In addition to its minimalist syntax, Go has very good support in a number of simple aspects. For example, Go has only 25 keywords, making the development process hardly encounter any clutter or complexity. Additionally, to serve the needs of managing dependencies, Go also has a very convenient built-in package management system - high-performance libraries for networking, file handling, and cryptography. Regardless of being a beginner or an expert developer, Go enables users to have complete control in creating web applications.
Designed to ensure security and prevent common security vulnerabilities such as buffer overflows and memory leaks, Go is considered one of the safe programming languages for many developers. As a statically typed language, Go helps to mitigate runtime errors for seamless development and increased productivity.
However, that is not the key security feature of Golang. It is its concurrency-focused solid memory management, which is based on multiple goroutines and channels. In order to guarantee memory-safe concurrency, Golang has a garbage collector that automatically frees up no longer-needed memory, thereby preventing some common memory safety pitfalls like memory leaks, race conditions, and deadlocks.
In addition, Golang also includes type safety, which helps developers to prevent null pointer and type mismatch errors that can lead to security vulnerabilities.
Go Language vs. Other Popular Programming Languages
Each project has different technical requirements and memory allocation. That is why before starting any future development projects, you need to invest in learning about programming languages, as each of them has its own strengths and weaknesses that best suit the given tasks. This article will help you speed up your decision-making by comparing Golang’s performance with other popular programming languages in key differences.
Go vs. Rust
Go and Rust are both compiled languages that are very popular with users. Besides their similarities in terms of focus on concurrency and performance, they also have significant differences in terms of memory management, type system, and concurrency.
- Memory Safety: Go automates managing memory allocation by a garbage collection, while Rust works uses explicit one through its ownership model. As a result, Rust, with more control over memory usage, leads to better performance and fewer memory-related bugs.
- Type System: Interface and trust makeup Go’s simple type systems. On the other hand, Rust offers a more advanced one with generic functions, traits, etc. Thus, you can choose your perfect match depending on your needs and the complexity of web development.
- Concurrency: Rust is difficult to use but gives developers more flexibility and control over the execution environment. Why? Go supports concurrency by using goroutines and channels. Rust, despite providing threads and message-passing pointers, still leaves synchronization and memory management details up to the developer.
Go vs. Python
Go is suitable for scalable concurrent systems, while Python is more popular for many different applications, especially software solutions related to data analysis and scientific computing. The differences below will explain this.
- Performance: When it comes to concurrency and parallelism, Go, with built-in concurrency features, is undeniably faster than Python. The reason for this is that Python’s global interpreter lock (GIL) limits itself to maximum performance against multi-core processors.
- Type of Language: Python is a dynamically typed language which types are determined at runtime. Meanwhile, Go is a statically typed language that allows users to catch errors before runtime. However, in certain situations, Go is, therefore, less flexible than Python.
- Syntax: Go has a C-like syntax that makes it easy for developers to understand and program. However, Python is even more readable, using whitespace and indentation to define blocks of code. In this case, Python is the winner.
Go vs. Java
Overall, both Go and Java are powerful programming languages in performance. However, if you are looking for speed when it comes to concurrency and memory management, choose Go. In case you choose an ecosystem of libraries and tools, Java suits you better.
- Memory Management: Go’s Garbage collector allows this programming language to adapt quickly to large-scale concurrent systems. Unfortunately, Java fails to do that, as its garbage collector can cause latency spikes in high-concurrency environments.
- Ecosystem: Although Go’s ecosystem of libraries is growing, Java still has a broader ecosystem and more choices.
- Learning Curve: Although it is all about simplicity, Java still wins in the learning curve aspect because of its mature ecosystem and wealth of resources available to developers. Meanwhile, concurrency and systems-level programming on Go can be challenging for beginners.
Go vs. C++
Although there are many similarities with C++, Go still has specific differences that make it easy for users to distinguish these two programming languages, especially in aspects such as safety, compilation, and syntax.
- Memory Safety: Go automates the process of cleaning up unnecessary data. Meanwhile, you’ll have to entirely manually do such processes by using pointers in C++.
- Syntax: Go syntax is much simpler compared to C++. Although it can be difficult for newcomers, if you are an experienced developer, you will enjoy features in C++ that are not available in Go, such as operator overloading and multiple inheritances.
- Compilation: Go is faster than C++ thanks to compiling directly to machine code, while C++ must first compile into object files and then link into an executable file.
It’s no coincidence that we have so many programming languages to choose from. If taken as a whole, there is no win over language because each of them has distinct strengths and weaknesses, and the development team’s needs vary.
For example, when your company has a need to develop a banking app, most of the popular languages today can meet your project well. However, if you focus on the ecosystem and history of use in the finance industry, you should choose Java. People who focus on security and performance choose Rust instead.
We know deciding on a programming language is more than a difficult task for you. If you need help from experts for your development, don’t hesitate to contact Orient Software for free advice. With many years of experience in the technology market and cooperating with many organizations regardless of size, we have supported the success of many projects with our own software outsourcing service. Let Orient help you in this journey!
Topics: Programming Languages
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